Bernadette F. Ardelli

ardelliResearch Interests

Treatment of tropical diseases caused by infections with protozoans and nematodes is reliant on drugs. Most of the drugs currently in use are old (some have been used since 1950), toxic, expensive and may require a hospital setting to administer. Control of these infections is further complicated by the development of drug resistance. One of my research goals is to understand drug resistance, in order to circumvent or overcome it. Thus, I am always searching for new specific cellular targets of parasites that have the potential to be exploited in chemotherapy.

Nematode and protozoan parasites are masters at modulating the immune system. For example, individuals infected with Kinetoplastid protozoans make vigorous anti-parasite specific antibody and display cellular immune responses. Despite these responses, parasite replication continues at all stages of infection and ultimately leads to immunological collapse, onset of chronic malignancies and death of infected hosts, if left untreated. Thus, the strategies by which these parasites evade immune surveillance are fundamental to understanding pathogenesis and are crucial for the ability to develop effective strategies. It has become increasingly clear that parasites, bacteria, as well as viruses have evolved multiple and complementary mechanisms to circumvent host immune responses. These pathogens have ‘studied’ immunology over millions of years of co-evolution with their hosts. During this ongoing education they have developed countless mechanisms to escape from the host’s immune system. Another of my research interests is mechanisms of immune evasion by eukaryotic pathogens.


A. Refereed journal articles

33.  Ahn SK, Cho PY, Na B-K, Hong S-J, Nam H-W, Sohn W-M, Ardelli BF, Park Y-K, Kim T-S, Cha SH* (2015) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a glucose transporter (CsGLUT) in Clonorchis sinensis. Parasitology Research DOI 10.1007/s00436-015-4754-y

32.  Dooley LA, Froese EA, Chung YT, Burkman EJ, Moorhead AR & Ardelli BF.  (2015) Host ABC transporter proteins may influence the efficacy of ivermectin and possibly have broader implications for the development of resistance in parasitic nematodes. Experimental Parasitology. 157 35-43.

31.  Bygarski EE, Prichard RK, & Ardelli BF (2014) Resistance to the macrocyclic lactone moxidectin is mediated in part by  membrane transporter P-glycoproteins: implications for control of drug resistant parasitic nematodes. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 4: 143-151.

30.  Woo PTK & Ardelli BF (2013) Immunity against selected piscine flagellates. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 43(2): 268-279.

29. Ardelli BF (2013) Transport proteins of the ABC systems superfamily and their role in drug action and resistance in nematodes.  (Invited Review) Parasitology International (Special Issue – Role of ion channels and transporters in parasitic helminth drug action and resistance).  Parasitology International 62: 639-646.

28. Ardelli BF & Prichard RK (2013) Inhibition of P-glycoprotein enhances sensitivity of Caenorhabditis elegans to ivermectin.  Veterinary Parasitology 191: 264-275.

27. Tompkins JB, Stitt LE, Morrissette AM & Ardelli BF (2011) The role of Brugia malayi ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in potentiating drug sensitivity. Parasitology Research.  109(5): 1311-1322.

26. Stitt LE, Tompkins JB, Dooley LA & Ardelli BF (2011) ABC transporters influence sensitivity of Brugia malayi to moxidectin and have potential roles in drug resistance.  Experimental Parasitology 129: 137-144.

25. Ardelli BF, Stitt LE & Tompkins JB (2010) Inventory and analysis of ATP binding cassette (ABC systems) in Brugia malayi. Parasitology 137(8): 1195-1212.

24. Tompkins JB, Stitt LE & Ardelli BF (2010)  Brugia malayi: in vitro effects of ivermectin and moxidectin on adults and microfilaria.  Experimental Parasitology 124: 394–402.

23. Ardelli BF, Stitt LE, Tompkins JB & Prichard RK (2009) A comparison of the effects of ivermectin and moxidectin on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Veterinary Parasitology 165: 96-108.

22. Ardelli BF & Prichard RK (2008) Effects of ivermectin and moxidectin on the transcription of genes coding for multidrug resistance associated proteins and behaviour in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Nematology 40(4): 290-298.

21. Bourguinat C, Ardelli BF, Pion SDS, Kamgno J, Gardon J, Duke BOL, Boussinesq M & Prichard RK (2008) P-glycoprotein-like protein, a possible genetic marker for ivermectin resistance selection in Onchocerca volvulus. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 158: 101-111.

20. Ardelli BF & Prichard RK (2007) Reduced genetic polymorphism in an Onchocerca volvulus ABC transporter gene following treatment with ivermectin. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101(12): 1223-32.

19. Ardelli BF, Guerriero SB & Prichard RK (2006a) Characterization of a half-size ATP binding cassette transporter gene which may be a useful marker for ivermectin selection in Onchocerca volvulus. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 145(1): 94-100.

18. Ardelli BF, Guerriero SB & Prichard RK (2006b) Ivermectin imposes selection pressure on a P-glycoprotein homologue from Onchocerca volvulus: linkage disequilibrium and genotype diversity.  Parasitology 11(9):1-12.

17. Ardelli BF, Guerriero SB & Prichard RK (2005) Genomic organization and effects of ivermectin selection on Onchocerca volvulus P-glycoprotein. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 143(1): 58-66.

16. Ardelli BF & Prichard RK (2004) Identification of variant ABC transporter genes among Onchocerca volvulus collected from treated and untreated patients in Ghana, West Africa.  Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 98(4):371-384.

15. Prichard RK, Eng JL & Ardelli BF (2003) Onchocerca volvulus resistance to ivermectin: is it occurring?  Lessons from the veterinary field, with thoughts on surveillance for resistance. Filaria Journal 2(1): 86-90.

14. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2003) Differences in the nutritional requirements of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Cryptobia salmositica in culture: observations on essential carbohydrates, amino acids and end products of metabolism. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms  56: 49-57.

13. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2002) Experimental Cryptobia salmositica infections in Atlantic salmon: cell-mediated and humoral immunity against pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the parasite. Journal of Fish Diseases 25: 265-274.

12. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2001a) Conjugation of isometamidium chloride to anti-Cryptobia salmositica antibodies and the use of the conjugate against the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica: An immunochemotherapeutic strategy. Journal of Fish Diseases 24: 439-451.

11. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2001b) In vitro secretion of metabolic end-products by the piscine haemoflagellates, Cryptobia salmositica and C. bullocki (Kinetoplastida) and the relationship of these products to the pH in the medium. Folia Parasitologica 48: 187-191.

10. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2001c) The in vitro effects of isometamidium chloride against Cryptobia salmositica.  Journal of Parasitology. 87:194-202.

9. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2001d) Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of isometamidium chloride against Cryptobia salmositica in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and the effects of the drug on uninfected rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.   Parasitology Research. 87: 18-26.

8. Ardelli BF, Witt JDS & Woo PTK (2000) Identification of glycosomes and metabolic end products in pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Cryptobia salmositica (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 42: 41-51.

7. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2000b) An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect isometamidium chloride in Oncorhynchus spp.. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 39: 231-236.

6. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (1999) The therapeutic use of isometamidium chloride against Cryptobia salmositica in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 37: 195-203.

5. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (1998a) Improved culture media for piscine haemoflagellates, Cryptobia and Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida). Journal of Parasitology 84: 1267-1271.

4. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (1998b) The in vitro effects of crystal violet on the pathogenic piscine haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951 (Sarcomastigophora: Kinetoplastida). Parasite 5: 27-36.

3. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (1997) Protective antibodies and anamnestic response in Salvelinus fontinalis to Cryptobia salmositica and innate resistance of Salvelinus namaycush to the haemoflagellate. Journal of Parasitology 83: 943-946.

2. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (1995) Immune response of Cryptobia-resistant and Cryptobia-susceptible salmonids to an Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 23: 33-38.

1. Ardelli BF, Forward GM & Woo PTK (1994) Brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and cryptobiosis: a potential salmonid reservoir host for Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951. Journal of Fish Diseases 17: 567-577.

B. Book chapters

2. Churcher TS, Kaplan RM, Ardelli BF, Schwenkenbecher JM, Basanez MG, Lammie PJ (2010) Mass treatment of parasitic disease: implications for development and spread of anthelmintic resistance. In: Issues in Infectious Diseases, “Antimicrobial Drug Resistance – Beyond the Breakpoint”. (Ed. J. Todd Weber). Karger Publishing, Unionville, CT, USA. 174 pp.

1. Ardelli BF & Woo PTK (2006) Immunocompetent cells and their mediators in finfish. In: Fish Diseases and Disorders, Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections (2nd edition). (Ed. PTK Woo) CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 699-721.

Research Lab

I have obtained grants in support of research from NSERC (Research Tools and Instrumentation [RTI] and Discovery Grants), the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Manitoba Research and Innovation Fund (MRIF), the Manitoba Health Research Council (MHRC), the Manitoba Centre for Proteomics and Systems Biology, the Brandon University Research Committee (BURC) and the Brandon University Student Union (BUSU) Work Study Program. This funding has allowed me to develop a laboratory dedicated to functional genomics. The equipment and software currently housed within the laboratory includes a Rotor-Gene 6500 real time PCR system; class II biological safety cabinet; carbon dioxide incubator with HEPA filter and infrared technology; refrigerated microcentrifuges; gradient thermal cycler; Bioplex suspension array system, workstation and manager software; biolistic particle delivery system (i.e., gene gun); Protean IEF system and protean II 2-D cell; Helixtree genetic analysis software; inverted fluorescent microscope; epifluorescent stereoscope with motion tracking software and camera; DTX multimode microplate reader; ultra low temperature freezer; and a ventilated HEPA-filtered cage system.