Dr. Scott Forbes

Dr. Scott Forbes’ primary interest is in sport science and has focused on various nutritional and training interventions to enhance athlete performance. In addition, he has expertise examining nutritional and exercise interventions for optimal muscle and brain health in older adults. He has worked as a personal trainer as well as an athlete consultant for several professional and varsity level sport teams.

Department of Physical Education Studies, Faculty of Education
Brandon University, 270-18th Street, Brandon, Manitoba, R7A6A9
Phone: 204-727-9637
Email: ForbesS@brandonu.ca

Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.ca/citations?user=G1l9mDQAAAAJ&hl=en

Affiliations

Education

Certifications

Certified Sports Nutritionist (CISSN): International Society of Sports Nutrition

Clinical Exercise Physiologist (CEP): Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP)

High Performance Specialist: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP)

Research Publications

  1. *Bagheri R, Hooshmand Moghadam B, Candow DG, Elliott BT, Ashtary-Larky D, Forbes SC, Rashidlamir A, Wong A. Response to: Resistance exercise in lean older adults: mind the gap in energy intake. Br J Nutr. 2021 Aug 16:1-5. doi: 10.1017/S000711452100310X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34392846.
  1. *Forbes SC, Krentz JK, Candow DG. Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence the gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: A within-subject design. Accepted: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.
  2. *Ruple, BA, Godwin, JS, Mesquita, PHC, Osburn, SC, Vann, SG, Lamb DA, Sexton CL, Smith MA, Candow DG, Forbes SC, Huggins KW, Frugé AD, Kavazis AN, Young KC, Seaborne RA,*, Sharples AP, Roberts MD*. Resistance training rejuvenates the mitochondrial methylome in aged human skeletal muscle. Accepted the FASEB Journal.
  3. *Ghobadi H, Attarzadeh Hosseini SR, Rashidlamir A, Forbes SC. Auto-regulatory progressive training compared to linear programming on muscular strength, endurance, and body composition in recreationally active males. Eur J Sport Sci. 2021 Aug 4:1-19. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2021.1963321. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34346831.
  4. *Lewgood J, Oliveira B, Korzepa M, Forbes SC, Little JP, Breen L, Bailie R, Candow DG. Efficacy of Dietary and Supplementation Interventions for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2378. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072378
  5. *Bagheri R, Hooshmand Moghadam B, Candow DG, Elliott BT, Wong A, Ashtary-Larky D, Forbes SC, Rashidlamir A. Effects of Icelandic yogurt consumption and resistance training in healthy untrained older males. Br J Nutr. 2021 Jun 14:1-26. doi: 10.1017/S0007114521002166. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34121642.
  6. *Forbes SC, Candow DG, Ostojic SM, Roberts MD, Chilibeck PD. Meta-Analysis Examining the Importance of Creatine Ingestion Strategies on Lean Tissue Mass and Strength in Older Adults. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1912. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061912.
  7. *Naderi A, Samanipour MH, Sarshin A, Forbes SC, Koozehchian MS, Franchini E, Reale R, Berjisian E, de Oliveira EP, Miraftabi H, Sharafshadeh MS, Rezaei S. Effects of two different doses of carbohydrate ingestion on taekwondo-related performance during a simulated tournament. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2021 May 27;18(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s12970-021-00434-4. PMID: 34044858.
  8. *Beigrezaei S, Yazdanpanah Z, Soltani S, Rajaie SH, Mohseni-Takalloo S, Zohrabi T, Kaviani M, Forbes SC, Baker JS, Salehi-Abargouei A. The effects of exercise and low-calorie diets compared with low-calorie diets alone on health: a protocol for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled clinical trials. Syst Rev. 2021 Apr 20;10(1):120. doi: 10.1186/s13643-021-01669-7. PMID: 33879240.
  9. *Karayigit, R.; Forbes, S.C.; Naderi, A.; Candow, D.G.; Yildirim, U.C.; Akca, F.; Aras, D.; C. Yasli, B.; Sisman, A.; Mor, A.; Kaviani, M. Different Doses of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Have No Effect on Exercise Performance in Resistance Trained Women.  J. Environ. Res. Public Health2021, 18, 3463. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073463
  10. *Pakulak, A., Candow, D. G., Totosy de Zepetnek, J., Forbes, S. C., & Basta, D. (2021). Effects of Creatine and Caffeine Supplementation During Resistance Training on Body Composition, Strength, Endurance, Rating of Perceived Exertion and Fatigue in Trained Young Adults. Journal of dietary supplements, 1–16. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2021.1904085
  11. *Pourabbas, M.; Bagheri, R.; Hooshmand Moghadam, B.; Willoughby, D.S.; Candow, D.G.; Elliott, B.T.; Forbes, S.C.; Ashtary-Larky, D.; Eskandari, M.; Wong, A.; Dutheil, F. Strategic Ingestion of High-Protein Dairy Milk during a Resistance Training Program Increases Lean Mass, Strength, and Power in Trained Young Males. Nutrients2021, 13, 948. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030948
  12. *Pires, L.A.M., Forbes, S. C., Candow, D. G., Machado, M. (2021). Creatine supplementation on cognitive performance following exercise in female Muay Thai athletes. The Journal of the Society for Neurosports 1 (1), 6.
  13. *Candow, D. G., Forbes, S. C., Kirk, B., & Duque, G. (2021). Current Evidence and Possible Future Applications of Creatine Supplementation for Older Adults.Nutrients, 13(3), 10.3390/nu13030745. 745 [pii]
  14. *Antonio, J.; Candow, D. G.; Forbes, S. C.; Gualano, B.; Jagim, A. R.; Kreider, R. B.; Rawson, E. S.; Smith-Ryan, A. E.; VanDusseldorp, T. A.; Willoughby, D. S.; Ziegenfuss, T. N. Common questions and misconceptions about creatine supplementation: what does the scientific evidence really show?  Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2021, 18.
  15. *Abdollahi, S.; Soltani, S.; de Souza, R. J.; Forbes, S. C.; Toupchian, O.; Salehi-Abargouei, A. Associations between Maternal Dietary Patterns and Perinatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.  Nutr. 2021.
  16. *Forbes, S. C.; Candow, D. G.; Ferreira, L. H. B.; Souza-Junior, T. P. Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Properties of Muscle, Bone, and Brain Function in Older Adults: A Narrative Review.  Diet. Suppl. 2021, 1-18.
  17. *Sarshin, A.; Fallahi, V.; Forbes, S. C.; Rahimi, A.; Koozehchian, M. S.; Candow, D. G.; Kaviani, M.; Khalifeh, S. N.; Abdollahi, V.; Naderi, A. Short-term co-ingestion of creatine and sodium bicarbonate improves anaerobic performance in trained taekwondo athletes.  Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2021, 18, 10-7.
  18. *Pereira, C. G. M.; Santana, E. R. S.; Ramos, J. E. R.; da Silva, H M B S; Nunes, M. A. P.; Forbes, S. C.; Santos, H. O. Low Serum Zinc Levels and Associated Risk Factors in Hospitalized Patients Receiving Oral or Enteral Nutrition: A Case-Control Study.  Ther. 2020.
  19. *Bagheri, R.; Hooshmand Moghadam, B.; Ashtary-Larky, D.; Forbes, S. C.; Candow, D. G.; Galpin, A. J.; Eskandari, M.; Kreider, R. B.; Wong, A. Whole Egg Vs. Egg White Ingestion During 12 weeks of Resistance Training in Trained Young Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Strength Cond Res. 2020.
  20. *Bagheri, R.; Forbes, S. C.; Candow, D. G.; Wong, A. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation and resistance training in postmenopausal women.  Gerontol. 2020, 111185.
  21. *Raeisi-Dehkordi, H.; Amiri, M.; Zimorovat, A.; Moghtaderi, F.; Zarei, S.; Forbes, S. C.; Salehi-Abargouei, A. Canola oil compared with sesame and sesame-canola oil on glycaemic control and liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes: A three-way randomized triple-blind cross-over trial. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 2020, e3399.
  22. *Paiva, J. M.; Souza, C.; Valle, V. O.; Forbes, S. C.; Pereira, R.; Machado, M. Creatine monohydrate enhanced fixed and planned load reduction resistance training without altering ratings of perceived exertion. Journal of Exercise and Nutrition 2020, 3.
  23. *Amiri, M.; Raeisi-Dehkordi, H.; Sarrafzadegan, N.; Forbes, S. C.; Salehi-Abargouei, A. The effects of canola oil on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis with dose-response analysis of controlled clinical trials. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 
  24. *Forbes, S. C.; Candow, D. G.; Smith-Ryan, A. E.; Hirsch, K. R.; Roberts, M. D.; VanDusseldorp, T. A.; Stratton, M. T.; Kaviani, M.; Little, J. P. Supplements and Nutritional Interventions to Augment High-Intensity Interval Training Physiological and Performance Adaptations-A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 10.3390/nu12020390.
  25. *Forbes, S. C.; Bell, G. J. Whey protein isolate or concentrate combined with concurrent training does not augment performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength adaptations.  Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 2020, 60, 832-840.
  26. *Mills, S.; Candow, D. G.; Forbes, S. C.; Neary, J. P.; Ormsbee, M. J.; Antonio, J. Effects of Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training Sessions in Physically Active Young Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 10.3390/nu12061880.
  27. *Antonio, J.; Candow, D. G.; Forbes, S. C.; Ormsbee, M. J.; Saracino, P. G.; Roberts, J. Effects of Dietary Protein on Body Composition in Exercising Individuals. Nutrients 2020, 12, 10.3390/nu12061890.
  28. *Sarshin, A.; Naderi, A.; da Cruz, C J G; Feizolahi, F.; Forbes, S. C.; Candow, D. G.; Mohammadgholian, E.; Amiri, M.; Jafari, N.; Rahimi, A.; Alijani, E.; Earnest, C. P. The effects of varying doses of caffeine on cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following an acute bout of anaerobic exercise in recreational athletes.  Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2020, 17, 44-6.
  29. *Ricci, T., Forbes, SC., Candow, DG. (2020). Creatine supplementation: Practical strategies and considerations for Mixed Martial Arts. Journal of Exercise and Nutrition, 3(1): S2.
  30. Forbes SC., Candow DG., Krentz JR., Roberts, MD., Young, K. (2019). Changes in fat mass following creatine supplementation and resistance training in adults ≥ 50 years of age: A meta-analysis. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 4, 62. Doi:10.3390/jfmk4030062
  31. Forbes, SC., & Bell, G. J. (2019). Whey protein isolate supplementation while endurance training does not alter cycling performance or immune responses at rest or after exercise. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, 19. doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00019 [doi]
  32. Candow, DG., Forbes, SC., Chilibeck, P. D., Cornish, S. M., Antonio, J., & Kreider, R. B. (2019). Effectiveness of creatine supplementation on aging muscle and bone: Focus on falls prevention and inflammation. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(4), 10.3390/jcm8040488. doi:E488 [pii]
  33. Candow, DG., Forbes, SC., & Vogt, E. (2019). Effect of pre-exercise and post-exercise creatine supplementation on bone mineral content and density in healthy aging adults. Experimental Gerontology, 119, 89-92. doi:S0531-5565(18)30710-1 [pii]
  34. Candow, DG., Forbes, SC., Chilibeck, P. D., Cornish, S. M., Antonio, J., & Kreider, R. B. (2019). Variables influencing the effectiveness of creatine supplementation as a therapeutic intervention for sarcopenia. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, 124.
  35. Amiri, M., Ghiasvand, R., Kaviani, M., Forbes, S. C., & Salehi-Abargouei, A. (2018). Chocolate milk for recovery from exercise: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-018-0187-x [doi]
  36. Forbes, S. C., & Candow, D. G. (2018). Timing of creatine supplementation and resistance training: A brief review. Journal of Exercise and Nutrition, 1(5) Retrieved from https://www.journalofexerciseandnutrition.com/ManuscriptUploadsPDF/62.pdf
  37. Forbes, S. C., Chilibeck, P. D., & Candow, D. G. (2018). Creatine supplementation during resistance training does not lead to greater bone mineral density in older humans: A brief meta-analysis. Frontiers in Nutrition, 5, 27. doi:10.3389/fnut.2018.00027 [doi]
  38. Sheyklouvand, M., & Forbes, S. C. (2018). Aerobic capacities, anaerobic power, and anthropometric characteristics of elite female canoe polo players based on playing position. Sports Sciences for Health, 14(1), 19-24.
  39. Forbes, S. C., Sletten, N., Durrer, C., Myette-Cote, E., Candow, D., & Little, J. P. (2017). Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not augment fitness, performance, or body composition adaptations in response to four weeks of high-intensity interval training in young females. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27(3), 285-292. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0129 [doi]
  40. Fereshtian, S., Sheykhlouvand, M., Forbes, S. C., Agha-Alinejad, H., & Gharaat, M. (2017). Physiological and performance responses to high-intensity interval training in female inline speed skaters. Meicina De L’Esport, 52(196), 131-138.
  41. Tyndall, A. V., Argourd, L., Sajobi, T. T., Davenport, M. H., Forbes, S. C., Gill, S. J., . . . Poulin, M. J. (2016). Cardiometabolic risk factors predict cerebrovascular health in older adults: Results from the brain in motion study. Physiological Reports, 4(8), 10.14814/phy2.12733. doi:10.14814/phy2.12733 [doi]
  42. Slade, S. C., Dionne, C. E., Underwood, M., Buchbinder, R., Beck, B., Bennell, K., . . . White, C. (2016). Consensus on exercise reporting template (CERT): Modified delphi study. Physical Therapy, 96(10), 1514-1524. doi:ptj.20150668 [pii]
  43. Forbes, S. C. (2016). Omega-3 combined with exercise on cognitive function in older adults. Agro Foods Inc High Tech, 27(3), 42-45.
  44. Forbes, S. C., & Sheykhlouvand, M. (2016). A review of the physiological demands and nutritional strategies for canoe polo athletes. Sports Nutrition and Therapy, 1(3)
  45. Forbes, D., Forbes, S. C., Blake, C. M., Thiessen, E. J., & Forbes, S. (2015). Exercise programs for people with dementia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4):CD006489. doi(4), CD006489. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub4 [doi]
  46. Forbes, S. C., Holroyd-Leduc, J. M., Poulin, M. J., & Hogan, D. B. (2015). Effect of nutrients, dietary supplements and vitamins on cognition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Canadian Geriatrics Journal : CGJ, 18(4), 231-245. doi:10.5770/cgj.18.189 [doi]
  47. Cheetham, S. J., Harber, V. J., McCargar, L. J., Forbes, S. C., & Bell, G. J. (2015). Glucose and hormonal response to nutrition bars that differ in glycemic index and load. Agro Foods Inc High Tech, 26(4), 14-19.
  48. Candow, D. G., Vogt, E., Johannsmeyer, S., Forbes, S. C., & Farthing, J. P. (2015). Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 40(7), 689-694. doi:10.1139/apnm-2014-0498 [doi]
  49. Pialoux, V., Genevois, C., Capoen, A., Forbes, S. C., Thomas, J., & Rogowski, I. (2015). Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: Physiological and performance outcomes. PloS One, 10(3), e0122718. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122718 [doi]
  50. Forbes, S. C., Forbes, D., Blake, C. M., Chong, L. Y., Thiessen, E. J., Little, J. P., & Rutjes, A. (2015). Exercise interventions for preventing dementia or delaying cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5)
  51. Forbes, S. C., Forbes, D., Forbes, S., Blake, C. M., Chong, L. Y., Thiessen, E. J., . . . Rutjes, A. (2015). Exercise interventions for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in mid-life. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5)
  52. Forbes, S. C., Forbes, D., Forbes, S., Blake, C. M., Chong, L. Y., Thiessen, E. J., . . . Little, J. P. (2015). Exercise interventions for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in late life. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5)
  53. Forbes, S. C., Kennedy, M. D., Boule, N. B., & Bell, G. (2014). Determination of the optimal load setting for arm crank anaerobic testing in men and women. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(10), 835-839. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1368789 [doi]
  54. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., & Forbes, S. C. (2014). Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health. Endocrine, 45(3), 354-361. doi:10.1007/s12020-013-0070-4 [doi]
  55. Forbes, S. C., McCargar, L., Jelen, P., & Bell, G. J. (2014). Dose response of whey protein isolate in addition to a typical mixed meal on blood amino acids and hormonal concentrations. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24(2), 188-195. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0136 [doi]
  56. Forbes, S. C., Waltz, X., & Candow, D. (2014). Creatine timing on muscle mass and strength: Appetizer or dessert? Agro Foods Inc High Tech, 25, 19-22.
  57. Hartmann, S. E., & Forbes, S. C. (2014). Attenuated effects of exercise with an antioxidant supplement: Too much of a good thing? The Journal of Physiology, 592(2), 255-256. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.266999 [doi]
  58. Forbes, S. C., Harber, V., & Bell, G. J. (2014). Oral L-arginine before resistance exercise blunts growth hormone in strength trained males. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24(2), 236-244. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0106 [doi]
  59. Bell, G. J., Game, A., Jones, R., Webster, T., Forbes, S. C., & Syrotuik, D. (2013). Inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle training as an adjunct to concurrent strength and endurance training provides no additional 2000 m performance benefits to rowers. Research in Sports Medicine (Print), 21(3), 264-279. doi:10.1080/15438627.2013.792090 [doi]
  60. Forbes, S. C., Kennedy, M. D., & Bell, G. J. (2013). Time-motion analysis, heart rate, and physiological characteristics of international canoe polo athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(10), 2816-2822. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318280d2a2 [doi]
  61. Forbes, D., Thiessen, E. J., Blake, C. M., Forbes, S. C., & Forbes, S. (2013). Exercise programs for people with dementia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (12):CD006489. doi(12), CD006489. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub3 [doi]
  62. Forbes, S. C., Harber, V., & Bell, G. J. (2013). The acute effects of L-arginine on hormonal and metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23(4), 369-377. doi:2012-0190 [pii]
  63. Candow, D. G., Forbes, S. C., Little, J. P., Cornish, S. M., Pinkoski, C., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2012). Effect of nutritional interventions and resistance exercise on aging muscle mass and strength. Biogerontology, 13(4), 345-358. doi:10.1007/s10522-012-9385-4 [doi]
  64. Manders, R. J., Little, J. P., Forbes, S. C., & Candow, D. G. (2012). Insulinotropic and muscle protein synthetic effects of branched-chain amino acids: Potential therapy for type 2 diabetes and sarcopenia. Nutrients, 4(11), 1664-1678. doi:10.3390/nu4111664 [doi]
  65. Bhambhani, Y., Forbes, S., Forbes, J., Craven, B., Matsuura, C., & Rodgers, C. (2012). Physiologic responses of competitive canadian cross-country skiers with disabilities. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 22(1), 31-38. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182432f0c [doi]
  66. Forbes, S. C., Little, J. P., & Candow, D. G. (2012). Exercise and nutritional interventions for improving aging muscle health. Endocrine, 42(1), 29-38. doi:10.1007/s12020-012-9676-1 [doi]
  67. Forbes, S., Game, A., Syrotuik, D., Jones, R., & Bell, G. J. (2011). The effect of inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle training in rowers. Research in Sports Medicine (Print), 19(4), 217-230. doi:10.1080/15438627.2011.608033 [doi]
  68. Forbes, S. C., & Bell, G. J. (2011). The acute effects of a low and high dose of oral L-arginine supplementation in young active males at rest. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 36(3), 405-411. doi:10.1139/h11-035 [doi]
  69. Little, J. P., Chilibeck, P. D., Ciona, D., Forbes, S., Rees, H., Vandenberg, A., & Zello, G. A. (2010). Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 20(6), 447-456.
  70. Forbes, S. C., Chilibeck, P. D., Craven, B., & Bhambhani, Y. (2010). Comparison of a double poling ergometer and field test for elite cross country sit skiers. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy : NAJSPT, 5(2), 40-46.
  71. Forbes, S. C., Fuller, D., Little, J. P., Krentz, J., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2009). Physiological predictors of flat-water 1000 m kayak performance in young adolescents before and after a high volume training camp. International Journal of Exercise Science, 2(2), 106-114.
  72. Cornish, S. M., Candow, D. G., Jantz, N. T., Chilibeck, P. D., Little, J. P., Forbes, S., . . . Zello, G. A. (2009). Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19(1), 79-96.
  73. Little, J. P., Forbes, S. C., Candow, D. G., Cornish, S. M., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2008). Creatine, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides and endurance and performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18(5), 493-508.
  74. Forbes, S. C., Candow, D. G., Little, J. P., Magnus, C., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2007). Effect of red bull energy drink on repeated wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(5), 433-444.
  75. Forbes, S. C., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2007). Comparison of a kayaking ergometer protocol with an arm crank protocol for evaluating peak oxygen consumption. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(4), 1282-1285. doi:R-20636 [pii]

          Teaching (courses taught at Brandon University)